the present study we show the capacity of an extract of the fern
Polypodium leucotomos (PLE) to partially inhibit the production of
cytokines showing a Th1 pattern (IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) in human
PHA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The percentage of
inhibition was 24% for IL-2, 72% for INF-gamma and 53% for TNF-alpha. With
regard to Th2 cytokines, the addition of PLE resulted in a significant
increase (33%) in IL-10 production. Surprisingly, the production of the
inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was completely abolished (100% inhibition) by
PLE at all doses tested. In a second experiment in vivo we show that, the
topical application of PLE to the skin of hairless albino mice (Skh-1)
significantly diminished the mast cell infiltrate as well as the number of
blood vessels triggered by chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. These
data show that PLE moderately inhibits the immunological Th1 responses,
thus explaining the immunosuppressive as well as the anti-inflammatory and
antioxidant activities reported in other studies carried out with PLE. The
clear inhibitory effect on TFN-alpha and IL-6 production strongly suggest
that this may be the mechanism by which PLE: (a) inhibits angiogenesis in
vivo in the mouse model described here, and (b) prevents Langerhans' cells
depletion caused by solar irradiation in humans. Taken together, these
data suggest that PLE works through the induction of
suppressive/anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and/or TGF-beta
which in turn appear to allow the partial deactivation of macrophages or
other accessory cells. These features suggest that PLE could be useful in
the treatment of autoaggressive/inflammatory conditions due to an
exacerbation of Th1 responses.
10928072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
OF POLYPODIUM LEUCOTOMOS EXTRACT (PLE)
Pablo Cambar+, MD, MSc Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Danilo
Alvarado+, MD, MSc Pathology, University of Illinois
Toxicology performed on rats type Wistar, Albino mice type C3H and
rabbits type New Zealand White*.
Dose 50 (LD50) of PLE intraperithoneal in rats: LD50 = 2,800 mg / kg,
Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of PLE intraperithoneal in mice: LD50=3,900 mg /
Dose 50 (LD50) of PLE intraperithoneal in rabbits: LD50=3,700 mg / kg
Dose 50 (LD50) of PLE orally in rats: LD50=7000 mg / kg **
Dose 50 (LD50) of PLE orally in mice: LD50=20,000 mg / kg **
Dose 50 (LD50) of PLE orally in rabbits: LD50=35,000 mg / kg **
ACCUTE TOXICOLOGY OF PLE
Hemathological Parameters Measured (at initial time, 4 weeks and 12
Leucocytes, Hematocrites, Hemoglobin
Biochemical (at initial time, 4 weeks and 12 weeks):
Cholesterol, Urea, Creatinine, Total lipids, TGO, TGP, Total protein,
Physical (measured daily):
intake, Food intake, Excreted urine, Body weight
Length of study: 12 weeks
parameters: Blood analyzed taken from the heart. Once the toxicology was
completed, the animals were sacrificed and the following organs were
extracted, weighed and preserved in formalin for a histopathological
analysis: heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, suprarhenal, pancreas,
testicles, ovaries, large intestine, small intestine, bladder.
No abnormalities or alterations attributed to the administering of PLE
Complete toxicology data is fully available for rats, mice and rabbits.
This dose is over 1200 times the recommended dose for a 70 kg adult in a
single serving or approximately 1.4 kilos of pure PLE extract (2.8 kilos
of PLE powder). This dose did not provoke the death in any of the rats,
mice or rabbits in the study, rendering the product completely non toxic
when used at suggested dose.
Phenotype and Treatment with Polypodium leucotomos (Kalawalla) in Multiple
Sclerosis (MS) Patients
Spanish Society of Neurology, XLVI Annual Symposium
MM Carreño, P Castro, Dept. of Neurology, Navarra University, Pamplona,
Introduction and Obejectives
Several studies have shown the existence of abnormal immunological
phenotypes in MS, and more specifically a imbalance in the suppressor
Objectives: To determine quantitavive abnormalities in the lymphocyte
subpopulation of MS patients, to establish the relationship with the
different clinical pictures and to study the response to the treatment
with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos.
Patients and Methods: 12 patients, 10 women and 2 men, with well
established MS; mean age of 43.7 years; evolution time 6.5 years; treated
for one yeat only with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos (360 – 720 mg
/ day). The immunological phenotype was studied counting the lymphocyte
Statistical analysis were carried out by non parametric techniques.
Results: More frequent basal immunological alterations were increased CD4
in d LB (62.5%), decreased CD8 suppressors (50%). There was no correlation
between the increase in ICD4 in LB – progressive form and decrease ICD8
– relapsing / remitting form. The treatment brought the lymphocyte count
to normal in 100% of the patients with increased CD4 in B. the clinical
evolution, according to the EDSS scale was: Normal development of course
of disease 3 patients (37.5%), stabilization and improvement 5 patients
(62.5%) Increased in ICD8 suppressor figures were normalized in 3 patients
(50%); worsening was recorder in only 1 patient.
The most frequent immunological alterations of the phenotype in MS are
increase L ind B and decreased L supp. They are not related to classical
forms. The treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with an extract of Polypodium
leucotomos is useful to correct these phenotype imbalance and can
contribute to a clinical stabilization.
Cutan Ibero Lat Am. 1983;11(1):65-72. Related Articles, Links
2 years personal experience in Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract)
treatment of psoriasis in various clinical forms
[Article in Spanish]
Pineiro Alvarez B.
A personal experience on 495 patients affected by several forms of
psoriasis and its answer to the treatment with Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract) is presented. The whitenings between 80% and 100% of
the affected skin were achieved on 304 patients (61.41%); 46 patients
whitened between 30% and 80% of their lesions, 15 obtained null results
and only 11 had relapses. It is remarkable the high number of abandonments
to treatment which came at 119 patients (24.04%) due to slowness of
process and other reasons probably. The association with PUVA which
shortens the treatment and gives other advantages is pointed out as
positive. The average time of treatment was 6 months, and daily doses were
from 80 mg. and 720 mg. depending on age, weight and treatment phase. Side
effects appeared in two patients only: one with intense pruritus and the
other one with gastric disturbances. In both cases, these side effects
disappeared when the treatment was interrupted.
PMID: 6348443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comments: Out of 495 patients 93% of those who completed the 6 months
treatment with Polypodium leucotomos extract showed good results.
repigmentation with Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract). Mohammad A
International journal of dermatology (1989 Sep), 28(7), 479. Journal code:
0243704. ISSN:0011-9059. Letter written in English. PubMed ID 2777452 AN
89379534 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S. National Library of Medicine on
(Polypodium leucotomos extract): neuroimmunotrophic treatment in Alzheimer
disease and neurodegenerative disorders. Alvarez, Anton; Miguel-Hidalgo,
Jose J.; Fernandez-Novoa, Lucia; Diaz, Joaquin; Sempere, Jose M.;
Cacabelos, Ramon. EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, Basic and Clinical
Neurosciences Research Center, A Coruna, Spain. CNS Drug Reviews (1997),
3(2), 181-206. CODEN: CDREFB ISSN: 1080-563X. Journal; General Review
written in English. CAN 128:83971 AN 1997:791966 CAPLUS (Copyright 2004
ACS on SciFinder (R))
randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study with Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract) in senile dementia: effects on cognition, brain
bioelectrical activity and cerebral hemodynamics. Alvarez X A; Pichel V;
Perez P; Laredo M; Corzo D; Zas R; Fernandez-Novoa L; Sempere J M; Diaz J;
Cacabelos R EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, A Coruna, Spain. email@example.com
Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology (2000 Sep),
22(7), 585-94. Journal code: 7909595. ISSN:0379-0355. (CLINICAL TRIAL);
Journal; Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE); (RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL) written
in English. PubMed ID 11196347 AN 2001177090 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S.
National Library of Medicine on SciFinder (R))
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two doses of Anapsos
(Polypodium leucotomos extract) in comparison with placebo on cognitive
performance, brain bioelectrical activity pattern and cerebral hemodynamic
parameters in patients with mild to moderate senile dementia of vascular
type and Alzheimer type. Forty-five patients (age 73.8 +/- 7.6 years;
range 56-89 years) with mild to moderate senile dementia (Global
Deterioration Scale: stages 3-5) of the vascular (VD; n = 22) or the
Alzheimer type (AD; n = 23) were included in a double-blind randomized
placebo-controlled clinical trial. After a 2-week period of drug washout,
patients were treated with placebo (n = 15; age 72.7 +/- 7.5 years), 360
mg/day of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) (n = 15; age 75.5 +/-
7.2 years), or 720 mg/day of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) (n =
15; age 73 +/- 7.7 years) for 4 weeks (28 days). At baseline and after the
4-week period of double-blind treatment, cognitive performance, brain
bioelectrical activity power and blood flow hemodynamics in the middle
cerebral arteries were evaluated with ADAScog, brain mapping and
transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Patients receiving 360
mg/day of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) showed a significant
improvement in cognitive performance after treatment (ADAScog scores: p
< 0.05) that was not observed in patients treated with placebo or 720
mg/day of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract). As compared to placebo,
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) (360 mg/day) induced a significant
improvement in ADAScog scores in mild senile dementia patients (p <
0.01) and in the subset of patients with AD (p < 0.05). Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract) (360 mg/day) also increased cerebral blood flow
velocities in left and right middle cerebral arteries in the subgroup of
AD patients, whereas with the dose of 720 mg/kg this increase was only
observed in the left side. Patients treated with Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract) (360 mg/day) showed a decrease in relative delta power
and an increase in relative theta and alpha brain bioelectrical activity
frequencies, indicating an acceleration of the EEG pattern.
The present results show that Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) (360
mg/day) improves cognitive performance, cerebral blood perfusion and brain
bioelectrical activity in patients with senile dementia. These effects of
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) were more marked in demented
patients with mild mental deterioration and/or with dementia of the
vitro studies on the immunomodulating effects of Polypodium leucotomos
extract on human leukocyte fractions. Brend, A.; Ramirez-Bosca, A.; Huber,
H.; Diaz, Alperi, J.; Thaci, D.; Sewell, A.; Quintanilla, Almagro, E.
Zentrum der Dermatologie und Venerologie, Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet,
Frankfurt/Main, Germany. Arzneimittel-Forschung (1995), 45(8), 901-4.
CODEN: ARZNAD ISSN: 0004-4172. Journal written in English. CAN 123:275468
AN 1995:862800 CAPLUS (Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
The in vitro effect of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract), a water
based ext. of the naturally occurring fern Polypodium leucotomos (Calagualine),
on human leukocyte fractions was investigated. Calagualine inhibited
interleukin-2 secretion and Con A (Con A) stimulated proliferation of
T-lymphocytes in a concn.-dependent manner. In contrast, a greatly
enhanced secretion of IL-1a, IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor a was induced
suggesting a stimulation of monocytes and dendritic cells also present in
this system. Endotoxin induced stimulation was excluded. Also in the
absence of Con A, calagualine stimulated cytokine prodn. The presented
data show for the first time that calagualine exerts an immunomodulating
effect on leukocyte fractions, paving the way for further detailed studies
related to possible clin. efficacy.
Capella Perez MC, Castells RA. [Double-blind study using "Polypodium
leucotomos" 120 mg. in the treatment of psoriasis]. Actas
Comments: 61 psoriatic patients were treated for a period of 6 months with
Polypodium leucotomos extract. 90% of the patients showed significant
improvement within this period.
study between 120 mg. of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) and a
placebo in 37 psoriasis patients. Del Pino Gamboa J; De Sambricio Guiu F;
Colomo Gomez C Medicina cutanea ibero-latino-americana (1982), 10(3),
203-8. Journal code: 7601805. ISSN:0210-5187. (CLINICAL TRIAL);
(CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL); Journal; Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) written
in Spanish. PubMed ID 6759814 AN 83113784 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S.
National Library of Medicine on SciFinder (R))
It is presented a comparative and clinical study on 37 patients affected
by psoriasis, 13 of them took placebo and 22 finished treatment with
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) in capsules of 120 mg. One patient
abandoned treatment by intolerance and another one with possible laryngeal
neoplasm, the drug showed a discordant result. 9 out of 22 who used
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract), obtained full whitening, 5 got
whitenings between 40% and 80% of the affected surface, 5 got a maximum of
40% and 3 had null result. The absence of side effects, minimum
intolerance of product and the amount of obtained successes make the
authors to consider the future of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract)
optimistically for the treatment of psoriasis.
Comments: Most patients treated with Polypodium leucotomos extract showed
significant improvement while placebo patients did not.
Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 Jan;50(1):41-9. Related Articles, Links
Orally administered Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases
psoralen-UVA-induced phototoxicity, pigmentation, and damage of human
Middelkamp-Hup MA, Pathak MA, Parrado C, Garcia-Caballero T, Rius-Diaz F,
Fitzpatrick TB, Gonzalez S.
Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Department of Dermatology,
Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.
BACKGROUND: The use of psoralen-UVA (PUVA) in patients of skin phototype I
to II is limited by side effects of acute phototoxicity and possible
long-term carcinogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess oral Polypodium
leucotomos (PL) extract in decreasing PUVA-induced phototoxicity of human
skin on a clinical and histologic level. METHODS: A total of 10 healthy
patients with skin phototypes II to III were exposed to PUVA alone (using
0.6 mg/kg oral 8-methoxypsoralen) and to PUVA with 7.5 mg/kg of oral PL.
RESULTS: Clinically, phototoxicity was always lower in PL-treated skin
after 48 to 72 hours (P<.005), and pigmentation was also reduced 4
months later. Histologically, PL-treated skin showed a significant numeric
reduction of sunburn cells (P=.05), preservation of Langerhans cells
(P< or =.01), decrease of tryptase-positive mast cell infiltration
(P<.05), and decrease of vasodilation (P< or =.01). No differences
were found in Ki-67+ proliferating cells. CONCLUSIONS: PL is an effective
chemophotoprotector against PUVA-induced skin phototoxicity and leads to
substantial benefits of skin protection against damaging effects of PUVA
as evidenced by histology.
PMID: 14699363 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
effects of calagualine, an antitumoral saponine of Polypodium leucotomos.
Horvath A; Alvarado F; Szocs J; de Alvardo Z N; Padilla G Nature (1967 Jun
17), 214(94), 1256-8. Journal code: 0410462. ISSN:0028-0836. Journal;
Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) written in English. PubMed ID 6066125 AN
68089646 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S. National Library of Medicine on
(Polypodium leucotomos extract) modifies immunological parameters and
improves the clinical course in atopic dermatitis. Jimenez D; Doblare E;
Naranjo R; Munoz C; Vargas J F Dermatologica (1986), 173(3), 154-5.
Journal code: 0211607. ISSN:0011-9075. (CLINICAL TRIAL); Letter written in
English. PubMed ID 3533665 AN 87031144 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S.
National Library of Medicine on SciFinder (R))
(Polypodium leucotomos extract), an antipsoriatic drug, in atopic
dermatitis. Jimenez D; Naranjo R; Doblare E; Munoz C; Vargas J F
Departamento de Dermatologia y Venereologia, Universidad de Granada, Spain
Allergologia et immunopathologia (1987 Jul-Aug), 15(4), 185-9. Journal
code: 0370073. ISSN:0301-0546. Journal; Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) written
in English. PubMed ID 2891287 AN 88073810 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S.
National Library of Medicine on SciFinder (R))
An open, controlled study was carried out in young patients with atopic
dermatitis, who during one month received oral anti-psoriatic drug,
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) (n = 46), or antihistamines (n =
30), simultaneously with topic applications. The activity and extension of
the cutaneous lesions improved under both treatments, but more markedly
with Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) in spite of the fact that
topical applications did not contain steroids in the group treated with
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract), and the effect was still
appreciable several months after interruption of medication. Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract), which was well tolerated, considerably relieved the
respiratory symptoms of all patients with asthma. Studies performed on
patients with atopic dermatitis have shown high IgE levels, eosinophils
and T4 counts, and a marked decrease in T8 suppressor cells in peripheral
blood. Our data also show a slight decrease in T8 cells (%), a significant
increase in T4 sub-sets (%) and a high T4/T8 ratio as a previously
reported by several authors. Such an imbalance between helper and
suppresor cells may cause alterations in the response to extrinsic and
intrinsic antigens, as shown in particular by the abnormally high IgE
levels observed in atopic dermatitis. Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos
extract) was associated with a correction in T lymphocytes imbalances,
specifically through the increase of the initially low T8 cells levels and
subsequent normalization of the mean T4/T8 index. The tolerance and
promising therapeutic activity of this antipsoriatic drug deserve further
research in other conditions characterized by a deficit of suppressor
Lett. 2003 Feb 20;190(2):171-82. Related Articles, Links
Calagualine inhibits nuclear transcription factors-kappaB activated by
various inflammatory and tumor promoting agents.
Manna SK, Bueso-Ramos C, Alvarado F, Aggarwal BB.
Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Bioimmunotherapy, The
University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard,
Box 143, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Calagualine derived from the fern of the genus Polypodium, commonly called
calaguala, has had clinically documented medicinal uses in South America
and Spain and been shown to block tumor metastasis, proliferation, and
inflammation, all known to require the activation of nuclear transcription
factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Therefore, we investigated the effect of
calagualine on NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory and
tumor promoting agents. Calagualine blocked tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced
activation of NF-kappaB through inhibition of phosphorylation and
degradation of IkappaBalpha, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB. The effects of
calagualine were not cell type-specific, as it blocked TNF-induced NF-kappaB
activation in a variety of cells. NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene
transcription activated by TNF was also suppressed by calagualine. The TNF-induced
NF-kappaB activation cascade involving TNFR1-TNF receptor-associated death
domain-TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)-NF-kappaB-inducing kinase
(NIK)-IkappaBalpha kinase was interrupted at the TRAF2 and NIK sites by
calagualine, which would account for its suppression of NF-kappaB reporter
gene expression. Calagualine blocked NF-kappaB activation induced by
phorbol ester and lipopolysaccharide. Overall our results indicate that
calagualine inhibits activation of NF-kappaB and this may provide a
molecular basis for calagualine's ability to suppress inflammation and
PMID: 12565172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
communication on the treatment of psoriasis with Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract). Mercadal Peyri O; Maesci Cappitanio F Actas
dermo-sifilograficas (1981 Jan-Feb), 72(1-2), 65-8. Journal code: 0373062.
ISSN:0001-7310. Journal; Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) written in Spanish.
PubMed ID 7257904 AN 81252352 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S. National
Library of Medicine on SciFinder (R))
Comments: Most patients showed significant improvement within the period
J Rheumatol. 1998 Aug;37(8):912. Related Articles, Links
Modification of the inflammatory activity of psoriatic arthritis in
patients treated with extract of Polipodium leucotomos (Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract)) Navarro-Blasco FJ, Sempere JM.
Comments: The use of Polypodium leucotomos proved beneficial to most
patients in the study.
new agent (hydrophilic fraction of polypodium leucotomos) for management
of psoriasis. Padilla H C; Lainez H; Pacheco J A International journal of
dermatology (1974 Sep-Oct), 13(5), 276-82. Journal code: 0243704.
ISSN:0011-9059. (CLINICAL TRIAL); (CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL); Journal;
Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) written in English. PubMed ID 4609374 AN
75035388 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S. National Library of Medicine on
J Immunopharmacol. 1997 Jan;19(1):9-14. Related Articles, Links
An extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos inhibits human peripheral
blood mononuclear cells proliferation in vitro.
Rayward J, Villarrubia VG, Guillen C, Prieto A, Rodriguez-Zapata M, Sada
G, Alvarez-Mon M.
Departamento De Medicina, Hospital Principe De Asturias, Universidad De
Alcala De Henares, Madrid, Spain.
An alcoholic extract of the fern polypodium leucotomos (PLE) has been
empirically used as an immunosuppressor for the treatment of several
autoimmune diseases. In this paper, we investigated the effects of PLE on
activation and proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear
cells (PBMNC) from healthy donors to T lymphocyte polyclonal mitogens. PLE
shows a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferative response of
PBMNC to stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or anti CD3 monoclonal
antibodies (p < 0.05). In contrast, PLE did not modify the
proliferative response of PBMNC to phorbol esters (p > 0.05). The
inhibitory effect of PLE upon mitogen induced PBMNC proliferation is time
dependent and can be overcome by the exogenous addition of interleukin-2
to the culture medium (p < 0.05). The decreased proliferative response
of PBMNC to PHA stimulation in the presence of PLE is not associated with
a significant modification of expression of the alpha chain (CD25) of the
IL-2 receptor (p > 0.05). In conclusion, PLE shows an inhibitory effect
on the polyclonal proliferative response of PBMNC to T lymphocyte mitogens
that interact with cytoplasmic membrane molecules.
PMID: 9226474 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alvarado, JA Pacheco, PR Portillo, Z Alvarado, Polypodium leucotomos
extract, an effective treatment against psoriasis. Internal company
Comments: Out of 42 patients treated with Polypodium leucotomos during a 4
month period, all of them showed a 75 – 100% clearing of the lesions
within this period.
of Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) on in vitro production of
cytokines. Sempere, J. M.; Rodrigo, C.; Campos, A.; Villalba, J. F.; Diaz,
J. Scientific Dept., ASAC Pharmaceutical International, Alicante, Spain.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (1997), 43(1), 85-89. CODEN:
BCPHBM ISSN: 0306-5251. Journal written in English. CAN 126:198476 AN
1997:146151 CAPLUS (Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
The aim of the study was to test the immunomodulating capacity of Anapsos
(Polypodium leucotomos extract), in vitro to explore how this ext. acts
from an immunol. point of view and thus to identify a common link capable
of explaining most of its effects. Polypodium leucotomos rhizomes were
harvested in Guatemala and the ext., Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos
extract), obtained. Mononuclear cells were obtained by d. gradient
centrifugation from healthy donors, and stimulated with phytohemagglutinin
or pokeweed with and without Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) and
with Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) alone. Cell proliferation was
detd. by thymidine incorporation. Cells were also stimulated and the
following cytokines detd. by ELISA at 0, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h: IL-1?,
TNF-?, IL-2, IFN-?, IL-4 and IL-10. Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos
extract), has a modulating effect on the in vitro prodn. and release of
cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects. At
doses effective in vivo, Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract) can
stimulate PBMC proliferation, delay IL-1? secretion and at the same time
increase that of IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-?. Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos
extract) may have an antagonistic effect on some of the cytokines released
on cell stimulation with LPS and/or PHA, which suggests that this product
has a pleiotropic effect on different populations in the immune system.
(Polypodium leucotomos extract), an antipsoriatic drug which increases the
proportion of suppressor cells in human peripheral blood. Vargas, J.;
Munoz, C.; Osorio, C.; Garcia-Olivares, E. Dep. Fisiol. Bioquim., Fac.
Med., Granada, Spain. Annales d'Immunologie (Paris) (1983), 134C(3),
393-400. CODEN: ANIMCZ ISSN: 0300-4910. Journal written in English. CAN
99:151816 AN 1983:551816 CAPLUS (Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract), an antipsoriatic drug, was
administered to normal volunteers. After 3 days of treatment, the drug
decreased the lymphoblastic response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and very
slightly reduced the serum levels of Igs. After 5 days of treatment,
however, both values were normal. The response to ConA decreased, and
there was an increase in the suppressor index and in the proportion of
T-cells of the OKT 8+ subpopulation. The drug did not vary the proportion
of OKT 4+ and OKT 3+ cells. These results suggest that Anapsos (Polypodium
leucotomos extract) acts by increasing the no. of suppressor cells. Such
Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos extract)-induced suppressor cells are
probably responsible for the diminished response to ConA, but did not seem
to affect the response to PWM and serum levels of Ig after 5 days of
of calaguala and an active principle, adenosine, on platelet activating
factor. Tuominen, M.; Bohlin, L.; Rolfsen, W. Dep. Pharmacogn., Uppsala
Univ., Uppsala, Swed. Planta Medica (1992), 58(4), 306-10. CODEN: PLMEAA
ISSN: 0032-0943. Journal written in English. CAN 117:245226 AN 1992:645226
CAPLUS (Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
Calaguala, an ext. from the fern Polypodium decumanum, is used to treat
psoriasis and related immunol. disorders. The inhibitory activity of the
ext. was studied in 2 blood platelet-activating factor (PAF)-related
models. PAF was used to release the proteolytic enzyme elastase from human
neutrophils. Calaguala inhibited this effect with an IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL. The
PAF antagonist ginkgolide (BN 52021) was used as a pos. control with an
IC50 = 0.034 mg/mL. In the second model the inhibition of PAF biosynthesis
in neutrophils was studied using lyso-PAF and labeled acetyl-CoA.
Calaguala showed a concn.-dependent activity with the IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL.
Since PAF may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the activity
of calaguala seen in these PAF assays may contribute to the clin. efficacy
of the ext.
flavonoid constituents of two Polypodium species (Calaguala) and their
effect on the elastase release in human neutrophils. Vasaenge, Mervi; Liu,
Boling; Welch, Christopher J.; Rolfsen, Wenche; Bohlin, Lars. Division
Pharmacognosy, Department Pharmacy, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University,
Uppsala, Swed. Planta Medica (1997), 63(6), 511-517. CODEN: PLMEAA ISSN:
0032-0943. Journal written in English. CAN 128:119490 AN 1998:2481 CAPLUS
(Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
Five flavonoid compds. were isolated from 2 Polypodium species (P.
decumanum and P. triseriale) with the common name Calaguala. Structure
elucidation was carried out using different NMR techniques and revealed
the presence of 1 new glycoside (kaempferol
3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-2)-?-D-arabinopyranoside) (I), 2 known flavonoid
glycosides, rutin and kaempferol 3-O-?-D-arabinopyranoside, the trimeric
proanthocyanidin, selligueain, and the coumarinic acid deriv.,
melilotoside. The compds. were tested for their activity in platelet
activating factor (PAF) induced exocytosis in human neutrophils but none
of the compds. showed PAF specific activity. Instead, they showed more
general effects on the neutrophil including inhibition of the spontaneous
elastase release (melilotoside) and potentiation of the release induced by
PAF I. Selligueain inhibited the proteolytic enzyme, elastase in vitro.
sulphonoglycolipid from the fern Polypodium decumanum and its effect on
the platelet activating-factor receptor in human neutrophils. Vasange M;
Rolfsen W; Bohlin L Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Sweden
Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology (1997 May), 49(5), 562-6. Journal
code: 0376363. ISSN:0022-3573. Journal; Article; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) written
in English. PubMed ID 9178195 AN 97321474 MEDLINE (Copyright 2004 U.S.
National Library of Medicine on SciFinder (R))
The South American fern Polypodium decumanum, traditional name calaguala,
has documented clinical use in oral treatment of skin disorders, including
psoriasis. The inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), has
been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. A constituent of a
calaguala extract has been shown to have inhibitory activity in a PAF-induced
exocytosis model in human neutrophils. The compound was identified as the
1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulpho-alpha-D-quinovopyranosyl)-glycero l by
spectroscopic means. When subsequently studied in an in-vitro model for
[3H]PAF binding in neutrophils from man the compound caused dose-dependent
displacement of [3H]PAF from its receptor with an IC50 value of 2 microM.
It is suggested that the compound acts through PAF receptor antagonism in
intact human neutrophils.
fern Polypodium decumanum, used in the treatment of psoriasis, and its
fatty acid constituents as inhibitors of leukotriene B4 formation.
Vasange-Tuominen, M.; Perera-Ivarsson, P.; Shen, J.; Bohlin, L.; Rolfsen,
W. Dep. Pharm., Uppsala, Swed. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential
Fatty Acids (1994), 50(5), 279-84. CODEN: PLEAEU ISSN: 0952-3278. Journal
written in English. CAN 120:315432 AN 1994:315432 CAPLUS (Copyright 2004
ACS on SciFinder (R))
The fern P. decumanum, commonly called Calaguala, has a clin. documented
use in South America and Spain in the treatment of psoriasis. One of the
inflammatory mediators isolated in abnormally high quantities in the
psoriatic skin is leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Calaguala was tested in an in
vitro model using human leukocytes for its ability to inhibit the LTB4
formation. The inhibition was found to be caused by the polyunsatd. fatty
acids (PUFAs) linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid. IC50 values were
detd. for the isolated acids and compared to a group of closely related
acids also commonly found in nature. IC50 values for most acids tested
were of the same magnitude (20-60 ?M) except for arachidonic acid which
showed stimulatory activity and 8-(R)-hydroxylinoleic acid which gave 30%
inhibition with the highest dose tested (120 ?M). The amts. of PUFAs in
different Calaguala ext. were quant. analyzed and it is concluded that the
fatty acid constituents of Calaguala may contribute to the clin. effects
of the ext.
determination of antiinflammatory principles in some Polypodium species as
a basis for standardization. Liu, B.; Diaz, F.; Bohlin, L.; Vasaenge, M.
Div. Pharmacognosy, Dep. Pharmacy, Biomedical Center, Uppsala Univ.,
Uppsala, Swed. Phytomedicine (1998), 5(3), 187-194. CODEN: PYTOEY ISSN:
0944-7113. Journal written in English. CAN 129:140525 AN 1998:371470
CAPLUS (Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
Polyunsatd. fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acid), the
triflavonoid selligueain, and a sulfonoglycolipid (SQDG) were detd. quant.
by high-performance liq. chromatog. in the leaves and rhizomes of 5
Polypodium species (Calaguala). Exts. of the 5 ferns were studied in 3 in
vitro bioassays using platelet activating factor and leukotriene B4. SQDG
was present in pharmacol. detectable amts. in the crude exts. The anal.
method for quant. detn. of SQDG was recommended to be used for
standardization of Calaguala ext. in herbal drug prepns.
properties of Polypodium angustifolium (Calahuala). Pareja, Bertha; et al.
Fac. Farm. Bioquim., Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Boletin de
la Sociedad Quimica del Peru (1988), 54(2), 89-95. CODEN: BSQPAQ ISSN:
0037-8623. Journal written in Spanish. CAN 111:219163 AN 1989:619163
CAPLUS (Copyright 2004 ACS on SciFinder (R))
Calahuala is a folk medicine, derived from the fern P. angustifolium,
which is used in South America as an anti-inflammatory prepn. and for
other purposes. Anal. of an EtOH ext. of the leaves of this plant
indicates that the active component of Calahuala is an anthraquinone which
may be suitable for use as a starting material for synthesis of
Photochem Photobiol B. 2003 Apr;70(1):31-7. Related Articles, Links
Photoprotective properties of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium
leucotomos on human skin cells.
Alonso-Lebrero JL, Dominguez-Jimenez C, Tejedor R, Brieva A, Pivel JP.
R&D Department, Industrial Farmaceutica Cantabria S.A., Madrid, Spain.
The effect of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PLE)
has been investigated in terms of photoprotection against UV-induced cell
damage. PLE efficiently preserved human fibroblast survival and restored
their proliferative capability when the cells were exposed to UVA light.
This effect was specific and dose-dependent. Photoprotection was not
restricted to fibroblasts, as demonstrated by its effect on survival and
proliferation of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCat. Finally,
treatment of the cells with PLE prevented UV-induced morphological changes
in human fibroblasts, namely disorganisation of F-actin-based cytoskeletal
structures, coalescence of the tubulin cytoskeleton and mislocalization of
adhesion molecules such as cadherins and integrins. Our in vitro results
demonstrate the photoprotective effect of PLE on human cells and support
its use in the preventive treatment of sunburning and skin pathologies
associated with UV-mediated damage.
PMID: 12745244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Hornedo, Inigo, JM Belmar, Clinical assay on 44 psoriatic patients using
Polypodium leucotomos extract. Antol. Dermat. No. 1 (52 – 55), Jan 1983
Comments: 80% of the patients treated obtained good results within 2 – 5
months of use.
Company Statistics. Out of a 3 year study on Organic Hope patients and
their satisfaction with Polypodium leucotomos for the treatment of
different types of psoriasis, 95% of all patients showed complete
satisfaction within 6 months of use of Kalawalla.
Internal Company Research: There is no toxicity associated with the short
or long term use of Polypodium leucotomos extract. Side effects reported:
upset stomach (less than 5 in 1,000 patients). Interactions: HBP lowering
medications. Polypodium leucotomos theoretical reduces HBP, hence
producing an unsafe decrease in BP when combined with HBP medications.
Other supplements with similar BP lowering effects.
is a 100% natural product with no known toxic side effects.
This product contains (per capsule):
Polypodium leucotomos Extract …….……120 mg
Polypodium leucotomos Rhizome ………..180 mg
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